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The Structure of "瑹" disciplinary Deployment and Eugenics

Chung Yueh-tsen (Juliette) (University of Chicago)

Instead of giving a straightforward narrative of the history of the eugenics movement in China and Japan, this paper focuses rather on a series of intriguing questions derived from a comparative perspective of the American model, and the intersection between Chinese and Japanese development. Starting with the puzzling questions such as "Why both Japanese and Chinese geneticists were cautious about advocating human improvement based on Mendelism, when nearly 50 percent of American geneticists joined the eugenics movement in 1905 - 1915?" "If the Chinese genetic establishment was borrowed from the American scientific model, which was shaped especially under the auspices of the Rockefeller Foundation, why was it that Chinese geneticists, as recipients of the RF grants, did not follow their American geneticist counterparts as many as half of whom joined the eugenics campaign?" this chapter first explores the transplantation of biology and medicine in both Japan and China, and from the outgrowth of the transplantation, often characterized as "colonial science" by historians, the formation of local science and its detailed hidden agenda. After the layout of the scientific infrastructure, I demonstrate how the structure of these disciplinary deployments in turn regulated the scientific ground for eugenic enunciation between the geneticists and eugenicists.

It is important to add that in order to provide a balanced account, I propose to see local science as part of transitional science, and yet ingrained with its colonial legacy - a concealed potency to become another colonial science, as seen in the Japanese context, or a hidden agenda to thoroughly root and ramify the transplantation into native soils in order to forestall any further colonial infiltration, as exemplified by the case of China. Although local science can be regarded as reproducible experimentation with universalistic scientific methods, it should never be seen as a less developed phase as opposed to the well-developed western science in the same branch of knowledge, Rather, I see the local knowledge, metaphorically, as a species growing in its local habitat for its own aim of survival. That is what "transplantation" was signified for the people of the host country, and i see this paper more or less a taxonomic study of Japanese and Chinese eugenics.

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