direkt zum Inhalt springen

direkt zum Hauptnavigationsmenü

Sie sind hier

TU Berlin

Inhalt des Dokuments

P.B. Cousland: A Promoter for the Standardization in Chinese Translation of Medical Nomenclature

Zhang Daqing (Beijing Medical University)

It's a very important work to standardize the Chinese translation of medical nomenclature in introducing the western medicine into China. In the early period of the western medicine into China, a lot of work had been done by the missionary doctors in the subject, especially Dr. P. B. Cousland's Medical Lexicon which became the base of the medical terms and had great effect on medical education and texts in China.

Born in Glasgow, Scotland in 1860 and graduated from the Medical College Edinburgh University in 1882, as a missionary doctor, Dr. Cousland was sent to Santow church hospital, Canton province in 1883. In 1887, his report on the prevalence of beri-beri at the China Medical Missionary Journal was the most detailed record on the disease in modern China. He was also first advocator to appealed for medical statistics in order to find out incidence and tendency of the diseases in China.

While healing patients, Dr. Cousland taught medical knowledge to Chinese students. In the course of teaching, he considered that it's more benefit for Chinese students to use Chinese medical text, so he began to translate medical text into Chinese. In a series of translating books, the most famous texts were Halliburton's Physiology and Osler's Principle and Practice of Medicine, which became fashionable medical texts and were republished many times. As a lot of medical texts were published, the confusion of translation of medical nomenclature became a serious problem. Dr. Cousland began to devote himself to the work of standardizing medical terms.

In 1890, the Terminology Committee was established at the First Congress of China Medical Missionary Association (CMMA) owing to Dr. Cousland and others' efforts. As a member of the Committee, Dr. Cousland took on heavy responsibilities, such as drawing up a list of Chinese medical nomenclature. Dr. Cousland was appointed to a secretary of the Committee in 1900. During 1900 - 1905, under the leadership of Dr. Cousland, the Terminology Committee held a series of meetings to examine and approve the medical terms, including anatomy, histology, physiology, pathology and so on. In the paper of "Medical Nomenclature in China", he reviewed the history of the translation of medical terms since the western medicine into China and made comments on several editions of medical nomenclature. Dr. Cousland also summed up the work of the Terminology Committee since 1890 and pointed out its difficulties. According to his proposition a Publish Committee was founded in 1905. It took charge of the publishing of the medical texts according to standard terms.

Cousland's Medical Lexicon was published in 1908. It was the first English-Chinese medical dictionary in China and laid a foundation for the standardization of medical terms. However, it was only approved by the CMMA but not Chinese government and the medical profession, and therefore Dr. Cousland united with Chinese doctors and scholars in order to unite medical terms. A most important start was made in placing modern medical science upon a rational footing by the holding of the First Conference on Chinese Medical Terminology and the founding of Medical Terminology Association in 1915, which expanded to Scientific Terminology Association in 1917. The standardization of Chinese translation of scientific terms was one of the most events in the history of science and had a great effect on the introduction of western science in modern China.

Dr. Cousland devoted his life to the standardization of Chinese translations of medical terms and made a greater contribution to it. His work is valuable for the development of medical science in China.

Zusatzinformationen / Extras


Schnellnavigation zur Seite über Nummerneingabe

Diese Seite verwendet Piwik für anonymisierte Webanalysen. Mehr Informationen und Opt-Out-Möglichkeiten unter Datenschutz.