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ZHAO Shiyu, Beijing Normal University

How Can Images Be Historical Evidence? A Historical Anthropological Study of a Stone Painting in the Tuzhu Temple, Chuxiong, Yunnan

Abstract

中文提要:在今天云南楚雄大姚县石羊镇的文庙中,有一幅大理石彩绘,本是当地土主庙的旧物。该画下部描绘了明末清初孙可望入滇后其部将张虎进驻石羊、逼迫一名女性封氏投井尽节的故事,下部则描绘了清代雍正初年李卫入滇途中在洞庭湖遭遇风浪、得到石羊土主庇佑的故事。从表面上看,这是一幅宣扬土主神威灵的图画,但由于这幅画为石羊这个井盐产地的灶商在道光中叶所进献,我们便可通过考察得知,对于本地的盐业和社会发展来说,雍正时期和道光时期正是非常重要的“历史性时刻”,是石羊社会从恢复到极盛的两个节点。尽管整幅图像显示的似乎是土主的灵力和女性的贞洁,但背后最为重要的因素是这里的盐及其利益。由此,我们不仅可以揭示图像作为一种历史文本有着不同于文献的价值,而且可以通过对不同文本之张力的把握,深化历史人类学的研究实践。

There is a colorful marble painting in the Confucian temple of Shiyang town, Dayao county, Chuxiong of Yunnan province. It was in Tuzhu Temple there. On the lower part, it depicts that Zhang Hu, a general under Sun Kewang, enters Shiyang and forces a woman, surname Feng, sinking herself into a well after they occupy Yunnan in mid-17th century. On the upper part, it depicts that Li Wei suffers the storm in the Dongting Lake on the way to Yunnan and he is saved by the deity Tuzhu of Shiyang. On the surface, this is a painting showing the power of Tuzhu, but because this painting is devoted by the salt traders of Shiyang where well salt is produced, we can know through examinations that the periods of Yongzheng's reign and Daoguang's reign are very important "historical moments" for local salt industry and social development, which are two key points of  Shiyang society from its restoration to flourish. The whole painting seems to express the power of Tuzhu and the charity of the women, but the most important factor behind them is the salt and its benefits. Therefore, we could not only show the unique value of the images as a historic text rather than the literature, but also deepen the practice of historical anthropology studies by holding the tensions among varied texts and genres.

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