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A Comparative Study of University-Industry Collaboration (UIC) in China, Germany and USA


Policymakers and industry strategists in developing countries are increasingly considering initiatives that foster university-industry collaboration (UIC). Their goal is to enhance the capabilities and efficiency of innovation systems by leveraging the roles of universities as generators and disseminators of valuable knowledge, which is still highly concentrated in the academia of these nations. In this study, UICs in China, Germany, and the United States (US) are analyzed in terms of co-authored publications indexed in the Web of Science (WoS).

The results show that:
(1) Chinese universities are much less active in collaboration with industry in terms of both publication productivity and collaboration intensity.
(2) The US & China UIC systems are more domestically-oriented, the Germany system is more export-oriented.
(3) In these three countries, the income from industry appears to be the main determinant of UIC intensity.
(4) The results also suggest that UIC is also determined by research quality in Germany/USA, whereas in China this is not the case. 

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